Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Nurses in a Specialist Hospital towards Ionizing Radiation at Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

Main Article Content

Samson Dauda Yusuf
Ibrahim Umar
Usman Faruk Tarfa
Abdullahi Abubakar Mundi


The effect of ionizing radiation on occupational workers is increasing at an alarming rate due to inadequate knowledge and attitude of workers. Despite this, little research has been done on the knowledge and attitude of Nigerian nurses towards radiation protection and practice. In this study, the knowledge and attitude of Nurses towards Ionizing radiation was carried out at Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria, using a self-structured questionnaire. The systematic sampling technique was used to collect 30 usable responses, corresponding to 75 percent response rate that was used for the analysis. The result shows that, even though the nurses are not well educated and have just an average knowledge of radiation and its effects, they are found to show a positive (right) attitude towards ionizing radiation during theatre and ward radiography. Educational level and years of experience were found to have a significant impact on their attitude towards radiation. However, their low level of education could prove fatal if proper measures are not in place. Hospital management should embark on educational intervention programs, seminars and symposium for the nurses to improve their professional skills and knowledge for good radiation protection practices.

Knowledge, attitude, ionizing radiation, nurses, assessment, radiation protection.

Article Details

How to Cite
Yusuf, S. D., Umar, I., Tarfa, U. F., & Mundi, A. A. (2020). Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Nurses in a Specialist Hospital towards Ionizing Radiation at Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health, 3(1), 42-51. Retrieved from
Original Research Article


Bessho SA, Kusama NJ. Assessment of nurses training programme on radiation. Journal of Radiology Nursing. 1996;47(9): 1-10.

Alotaibe M, Saeed R. Radiology nurses awareness of radiation. Journal of Radiology Nursing. 2006;125(6):1-8.

Herrmann, TL, Fauber TL, Gill J, Hoffman C, Orth DK, Peterson PA. Best practices in digital radiography. Radiological Technology. 2012;84(1):83–89.

Briggs-Kamara MA, Okoye PC, Omubo-Pepple VB. Radiation safety awareness among patients and radiographers in three hospitals in Port Harcourt. American Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 2013;4(1):83–88.

Lautin EM, Novick MK, Jean-Baptiste R, Tailored CT. Primum non nocere. The British Journal of Radiology. 2008;81(966): 442–443.

Stewart F, Akleyev A, Hauer-Jensen M, Hendry J, Kleiman N, Macvittie TJ, et al. ICRP publication 118: ICRP statement on tissue reactions and early and late effects of radiation in normal tissues and organs-threshold doses for tissue reactions in a radiation protection context. Annals of the ICRP. 2012;41(1):1–322.

Popanda O, Marquardt JU, Chang-Claude J, Schmezer P. Genetic variation in normal tissue toxicity induced by ionizing radiation. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis. 2009;667(1):58–69.

ICRP. ICRP Publication 103: The 2007 recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection. Annals of the ICRP. 2007;37(1):1–332.

Little MP. Ionising radiation in the workplace. BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online). 2015;351:1-2:h5405.
DOI: 10.1136/bmj.h5405

Grover SB, Kumar J, Gupta A, Hanna L. Protection against radiation hazards. Regulatory bodies, safety norms, dose limits and protection devices. Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging. 2002;12(9):1-10.

Urushizaka M, Noto Y, Ogura N, Kitajima M, Nishizawa Y. Changes in nurses impression of radiation after attending educational seminars on radiation. Radiation Emergency Medicine. 2013;2(7): 1-9.

Mojiri M, Moghimbelgi A. Awareness and attitude of radiographers towards radiation protection. Journal of Paramedical Sciences. 2008;2(6):1-8.

Mubeen SM, Abbas Q, Nisar N. Knowledge about ionizing and non-ionizing radiation among medical students. 1st Ed. Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, Karachi, Pakistan; 2008.

Kruszewski M, Wojewódzka M, Iwanenko T, Collins AR, Szumiel I. Application of the comet assay for monitoring DNA damage in workers exposed to chronic low-dose irradiation. II. Base damage. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 1998;416(1): 37–57.

World Health Organization. Health effects and protective measures; 2011.
(Accessed 8 May 2018)

World Health Organization. Global initiative on radiation safety in healthcare settings: Technical meeting report. World Health Organization. Geneva; 2008.

Environmental Protection Agency. Ionizing & non-ionizing radiation; 2017.
(Accessed 5 May 2018)

Ralph M. Physical hazards: Ionizing radiation. The OHS Body of Knowledge; 2012.

Mojiri M, Moghimbelgi A. Awareness and attitude of radiographers towards radiation protection. Journal of Paramedical Sciences (JPS). 2011;2(4):1-4.

Amirzadeh F, Tabatabaee SHR. Evaluation of healthy behavior in radiation employees in hospitals of Shiraz. The fourth international cyberspace conference on ergonomics. International Ergonomics Association Press; 2005.

Kronenberg A. Radiation-induced genomic instability. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 1994;66(5):603– 9.

Maliro FMJ. Ionizing radiation protection awareness among nurses working at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital Malawi PhD. 1st Ed. Department of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg; 2011.

Rassin M, Granat P, Berger M, Silner E. Attitude and knowledge of physicians and nurses about ionizing radiation. Journal of Radiology Nursing. 2005;24(6):1-15.