Awareness and Use of Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Bed Nets (ITNs) among Students in the Second Cycle Institutions in the Tamale Metropolis of Northern Region of Ghana
Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health,
Introduction: Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are a type of personal protection that has been shown to reduce severe illness and death caused by malaria in endemic areas. Effective malaria prevention reduces mortality and morbidity rates associated with malaria. The use of ITNs have been shown as one of the effective and simplest way of preventing malaria among the general population. Yet, the awareness and utisation of ITNs are not encouraging in most African countries including Ghana. This study aimed at assessing students' level of awareness and use of insecticide-treated bed nets in the Tamale Metropolis of Ghana's Northern Region.
Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study design was used. The participants were 368 in total from six different schools within the Metropolis. The study participants were recruited using multistage sampling techniques. Data were collected with a pretested questionnaire and the data were analyzed with SPSS version 24. Descriptive and binary logistic regression models were used. The results were presented in the form of frequencies, percentages, and tables.
Results: The study revealed a high level of knowledge (92.1%), possession of ITN (74.2%), 87.0% knew the use of ITNs to prevent malaria. Majority (69.8%) of respondents use ITNs, out of those who use ITNs, only 14.4% indicated sleeping under ITN throughout the year while 85.6% use ITNs during the season of mosquitoes. Students who had a good understanding of the purpose of ITNs were 1.39 times more likely to use ITNs (AOR=1.39, 95% CI=0.25-7.56, P= .002) and students who did not own ITNs were 0.3% less likely to use ITNs (AOR=0.003, 95% CI=0.007-0.014, P>.001).
Conclusion: The study reported high awareness about ITNs and ownership. The usage of ITN all year round however was low. The success of ITNs usage in second cycle institutions is dependent on the government’s ability to provide adequate infrastructure to allow for some space to enable the students to tie their Nets. The students of the second cycle institutions should be educated more on ITNs usage and its benefits.
How to Cite
Larsen DA, Ngwenya-Kangombe T, Cheelo S, Hamainza B, Miller J, Winters A, et al. Location, location, location: environmental factors better predict malaria-positive individuals during reactive case detection than index case demographics in Southern Province, Zambia. Malar J. 2017;16(1):1–9.
Fuge TG, Ayanto SY, Gurmamo FL. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice about malaria and ITNs utilization among pregnant women in Shashogo District, Southern Ethiopia. Malar J. 2015;14(1):235.
Hurtado L, Cumbrera A, Rigg C, Perea M, Santamaría AM, Chaves LF, et al. Long-term transmission patterns and public health policies leading to malaria elimination in Panamá. Malar J. 2020;19(1):1–16.
Abdullahi AA, Abubakar AD. Why It Is Difficult to Eradicate Malaria in Sub-Sahara Africa. Perspect Glob Dev Technol. 2019;18(3):269–85.
Alegana VA, Khazenzi C, Akech SO, Snow RW. Estimating hospital catchments from in-patient admission records: a spatial statistical approach applied to malaria. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):1–11.
Clarke SE, Rouhani S, Diarra S, Saye R, Bamadio M, Jones R, et al. Impact of a malaria intervention package in schools on Plasmodium infection, anaemia and cognitive function in schoolchildren in Mali: a pragmatic cluster-randomised trial. BMJ Glob Heal. 2017;2(2):e000182.
World Health Organisation. World Malaria Report 2019. 2019.
Baume CA, Franca-Koh AC. Predictors of mosquito net use in Ghana. Malar J. 2011;10(1):1–6.
Manu G, Boamah-Kaali EA, Febir LG, Ayipah E, Owusu-Agyei S, Asante KP. Low utilization of insecticide-treated bed net among pregnant women in the middle belt of Ghana. Malar Res Treat. 2017;2017.
Idris IO, Ayeni GO, Iyamu IO, Sina-Odunsi AB, Adebisi YA, Obwoya JG. Factors influencing severity of recurrent malaria in a conflict-affected State of south Sudan; 2021.
Teh RN, Sumbele IUN, Meduke DN, Ojong ST, Kimbi HK. Malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and malnutrition in children less than 15 years residing in different altitudes along the slope of Mount Cameroon: prevalence, intensity and risk factors. Malar J. 2018;17(1):1–13.
Ndawonde N. Development as Freedom: An investigation into the effectiveness of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) on human development in sub-Saharan Africa. 2018.
Rahman A, Kuddus MA. Cost-effective modeling of the transmission dynamics of malaria: A case study in Bangladesh. Commun Stat Case Stud Data Anal Appl. 2020;6(2):270–86.
Saleh J-EA, Saddiq A, Uchenna AA. LLIN Ownership, Utilization, and Malaria Prevalence: An Outlook at the 2015 Nigeria Malaria Indicator Survey. Open Access Libr J. 2018;5(1):1–3.
Nyavor KD, Kweku M, Agbemafle I, Takramah W, Norman I, Tarkang E, et al. Assessing the ownership, usage and knowledge of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) in malaria prevention in the hohoe municipality, Ghana. Pan Afr Med J. 2017;28(1).
Diabaté S, Druetz T, Bonnet E, Kouanda S, Ridde V, Haddad S. Insecticide-treated nets ownership and utilization among under-five children following the 2010 mass distribution in Burkina Faso. Malar J. 2014;13(1):353.
Mohamed MH, Mohamed H, Hassan A. Factors Affecting Utilisation of Insecticide Treated Net among Household with Children Less than Five Years in Hodan District, Mogadishu, Somalia. J Biosci Med. 2020;8(08):194.
Okafor CJ, Ogbonnaya NP. Knowledge, accessibility, and utilization of insecticide treated nets among pregnant women in a selected hospital in South-Eastern Nigeria. Eur J Midwifery. 2020;4.
Organization WH. WHO malaria terminology. World Health Organization; 2016.
Alemu MB, Asnake MA, Lemma MY, Melak MF, Yenit MK. Utilization of insecticide treated bed net and associated factors among households of Kola Diba town, North Gondar, Amhara region, Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2018;11(1):1–5.
Bisi-Onyemaechi AI, Obionu CN, Chikani UN, Ogbonna IF, Ayuk AC. Determinants of use of insecticide-treated nets among caregivers of under-five children in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Public Heal. 2017;10(4):1037.
Adjah ESO, Panayiotou AG. Impact of malaria related messages on insecticide-treated net (ITN) use for malaria prevention in Ghana. Malar J. 2014; 13(1):1–7.
Ghana Health Service. “Ghana demographic health survey,” Key Indicators, Ghana Statistical Service Accra, Ghana. The DHS Program ICF International, Rockville, MD, USA,. 2014;
GSS G& I. Ghana Malaria Indicator Survey 2016. Accra, Ghana, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: GSS, GHS, and ICF; 2017.
Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), Ghana Health Service (GHS) I. Ghana maternal health survey 2017. Accra; 2018.
Dadzie D, Kenu E, Peprah NY, Ajumobi OO, Masiira B, Bandoh DA, et al. Spatio-temporal distribution of under-five malaria morbidity and mortality hotspots in Ghana, 2012–2017: a case for evidence-based targeting of malaria interventions. J Interv Epidemiol Public Heal. 2018;1(5).
Agyei FB, Dzando G, Donyi AB, Nonoh EA, Dordunu R, Opoku CK. Knowledge and Perceived Barriers towards Intermittent Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study. Open J Intern Med. 2021;11(1):27–38.
Bauserman M, Conroy AL, North K, Patterson J, Bose C, Meshnick S. An overview of malaria in pregnancy. In: Seminars in perinatology. Elsevier. 2019; 282–90.
Hill J, Hoyt J, van Eijk AM, D’Mello-Guyett L, Ter Kuile FO, Steketee R, et al. Factors affecting the delivery, access, and use of interventions to prevent malaria in pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2013;10(7):e1001488.
Njatosoa AF, Mattern C, Pourette D, Kesteman T, Rakotomanana E, Rahaivondrafahitra B, et al. Family, social and cultural determinants of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use in Madagascar: secondary analysis of three qualitative studies focused on children aged 5–15 years. Malar J. 2021;20(1):1–15.
Bangert M, Molyneux DH, Lindsay SW, Fitzpatrick C, Engels D. The cross-cutting contribution of the end of neglected tropical diseases to the sustainable development goals. Infect Dis Poverty. 2017;6(1):1–20.
Razavi S. Rethinking care in a development context: an introduction. Dev Change. 2011;42(4):873–903.
Ghana GSS. Population and housing census: national analytical report. Accra-Ghana Ghana Stat Serv. 2010;2013.
Ghana Education Service. Northern Regional Ghana Education Service: SHS report, 2015/2016.
Snedecor GW, Cochran WG. Statistical methods, 8thEdn. Ames Iowa State Univ Press Iowa. 1989;54:71–82.
Abiwu VA. Use of Insecticide Treated Nets among Households with Children Under Five Years in Agotime-Ziope District. University Of Ghana; 2018.
Ahorlu CS, Adongo P, Koenker H, Zigirumugabe S, Sika-Bright S, Koka E, et al. Understanding the gap between access and use: a qualitative study on barriers and facilitators to insecticide-treated net use in Ghana. Malar J. 2019;18(1):1–13.
Ferring D, Hausermann H. The political ecology of landscape change, malaria, and cumulative vulnerability in central Ghana’s gold mining country. Ann Am Assoc Geogr. 2019;109(4):1074–91.
Animut A, Gebre-Michael T, Medhin G, Balkew M, Bashaye S, Seyoum A. Assessment of distribution, knowledge and utilization of insecticide treated nets in selected malaria prone areas of Ethiopia. Ethiop J Heal Dev. 2008;22(3).
Talipouo A, Ngadjeu CS, Belisse PD, Djonkam LD, Chiana NS, Kopya E, et al. Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé : knowledge and practices of urban dwellers. Malar J. 2019;1–13.
Diema Konlan K, Amu H, Konlan KD, Japiong M. Awareness and malaria prevention practices in a rural community in the Ho Municipality, Ghana. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis; 2019.
Sidiki NNA, Payne VK, Cedric Y, Nadia NAC. Effect of impregnated mosquito bed nets on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Foumban Subdivision, West Region of Cameroon. J Parasitol Res; 2020.
Kimbi HK, Nkesa SB, Ndamukong-Nyanga JL, Sumbele IUN, Atashili J, Atanga MBS. Socio-demographic factors influencing the ownership and utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets among malaria vulnerable groups in the Buea Health District, Cameroon. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7(1): 1–8.
Tassew A, Hopkins R, Deressa W. Factors influencing the ownership and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria prevention in Ethiopia. Malar J. 2017; 16(1):1–9.
M’mauta DK. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Insecticide- Treated Nets among Students in Boarding Secondary Schools in Igembe District, Kenya. Kenyatta University; 2014.
Abamecha F, Sudhakar M, Abebe L, Kebede Y, Alemayehu G, Birhanu Z. Effectiveness of the school-based social and behaviour change communication interventions on insecticide-treated nets utilization among primary school children in rural Ethiopia: a controlled quasi-experimental design. Malar J. 2021;20(1): 1–15.
Anene-okeke CG, Isah A, Aluh DO, Ezeme AL. Knowledge and practice of malaria prevention and management among non-medical students of university of Nigeria, Nsukka. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2018;5(2):461–5.
Cheng B, Htoo SN, Mhote NPP, Davison CM. A systematic review of factors influencing participation in two types of malaria prevention intervention in Southeast Asia. Malar J. 2021;20(1): 1–9.
Kebede DL, Hibstu DT, Birhanu BE, Bekele FB. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Malaria and Associated Factors in Areka Town, Southern Ethiopia: Community-Based Cross Sectional Study. J Trop Dis. 2017;5(3):1–11.
Oppong O. Insecticide Treated Bed Net Usage Pattern in Ashaiman Municipality Accra. University of Ghana; 2014.
Teklemariam Z, Awoke A, Dessie Y, Weldegebreal F. Ownership and utilization of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria control in Harari National Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia. Pan Afr Med J. 2015;21(1).
Biadgilign S, Reda A, Kedir H. Determinants of ownership and utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria control in eastern Ethiopia. J Trop Med. 2012;2012.
Tobin-West CI, Alex-Hart BA. Insecticide-treated bednet ownership and utilization in Rivers State, Nigeria before a state-wide net distribution campaign. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011;48(3):133.
Aliyu AA, Alti-Mu’azu M. Insecticide- treated nets usage and malaria episodes among boarding students in Zaria, northern Nigeria. Ann Afr Med. 2009;8(2).
Sena LD, Deressa WA, Ali AA. Predictors of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership and utilization: evidence from community-based cross-sectional comparative study, Southwest Ethiopia. Malar J. 2013;12(1):406.
Oresanya OB, Hoshen M, Sofola OT. Utilization of insecticide-treated nets by under-five children in Nigeria: assessing progress towards the Abuja targets. Malar J. 2008;7(1):145.
Nyunt MH, Aye KM, Kyaw MP, Kyaw TT, Hlaing T, Oo K, et al. Challenges in universal coverage and utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets in migrant plantation workers in Myanmar. Malar J. 2014;13(1):211.
Hochbaum G, Rosenstock I, Kegels S. Health belief model. United States Public Heal Serv. 1952;W432W8784.
Green EC, Murphy EM, Gryboski K. The health belief model. Wiley Encycl Heal Psychol. 2020;211–4.
Abstract View: 295 times
PDF Download: 93 times