Open Access Systematic Review Article

Effect of Patient-centred Care on Quality Nursing Care, Nurse-sensitive Indicators and Satisfaction of Nurses and Patients in Adult Medical Inpatients Setting: A Mixed Methods Systematic Review Protocol

Dominic Abugre, Victor Mogre, Busisiwe R. Bhengu

Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health, Page 1-14

Background: The Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the USA proposed Patient-centred care (PCC) as a quality health care model that relies on partnerships among health practitioners, patients and their families whereby patients’ values, needs and preferences are factored into the health care process. This allows for patients’ input in their health education, support to make decisions on their care and participation in their own care. Patient-centred care (PCC) is projected as the gold standard for quality health care with positive effect on quality of nursing care, patient satisfaction, nurse satisfaction and nurse-sensitive indicators. Even though many studies have been done on the subject of patient centred care, fewer reviews exists on the effect of Patient-centred care on outcomes such as quality nursing care, nurse satisfaction, patient satisfaction and nurse-sensitive outcomes.

Aim: The aim of this review is to identify PCC models in literature and examine their effect on quality nursing care (QNC), nurse satisfaction (NS) patient satisfaction (PS) and on nurse-sensitive indicators.

Methods: This study adopts principles of systematic literature review to do a search on the effect of patient-centred care (PCC) models on selected health outcomes. These outcomes include quality nursing care (QNC), nurse sensitive indicators (NSI) and satisfaction of nurses and patients in the hospital setting with emphasis on medical inpatient setting. Papers published in English language between 1990 and 2018 from the selected databases will be searched. To identify eligible studies, keywords search and where possible MeSH terms related to “patient-centred care”, quality nursing care, nurse satisfaction, nurse-sensitive outcomes and patient satisfaction will be used. These terms will be searched individually first and then combined with “OR”. To situate the search within the nursing context and impatient setting, the keywards or MeSH terms will be used with “nursing”, “nursing care”, “nursing services”, “inpatients”.

Discussion: The review seeks to provide evidence on existing models of PCC in literature and how they affect the quality of nursing delivery, nurse-sensitive outcomes and satisfaction of both nurses and patients in the hospital setting.

Conclusion: This review seeks to provide the international perspective on the effects of Patient-centred care (PCC) on quality nursing and satisfaction of nurses and medical inpatients on nursing services delivery during admission. Dimensions or attributes and barriers of PCC delivery will be identified and incorporated into a context-driven PCC model for implementation in the Ghanaian setting.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018107181

Open Access Short Research Article

Assessing Efficacy of Stop the Bleed Education

Julia Daigle, Bridget Price, Stephen Lim, Christy Lenahan, Bruce Felgenhauer

Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health, Page 1-8

Stop the Bleed is a national grassroots, education campaign effort that focuses on empowering the public to recognize and control life-threatening bleeding emergencies. The White House, Homeland Security, and the American College of Surgeons - Committee on Trauma, and the Hartford Consensus have endorsed the program since 2015.  Stop the Bleed is a call to action plan to train the public on hemorrhage recognition and control until medical personnel are available for management.  An additional initiative is to place bleeding control kits in every public place. This project focused on educating 80-100 professionally trained and lay persons utilizing handouts and presentation information provided by the Stop the Bleed campaign. The education process involved the use of material focused on hemorrhage recognition while the second component of training involved active and return demonstration of tourniquet use, wound packing with gauze, and hemostatic agents for major bleeding control. A retrospective study evaluating pre and post questionnaires was utilized to assess knowledge of bleeding control education. The goal of this project was to prove that the Stop the Bleed campaign initiative can effectively train individuals regardless of current knowledge level. The significance of this study is to prove efficacy and support training of the public in responding to natural and unintentional disasters that result in uncontrolled bleeding.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Contaminants in Some Common Ready to Eat Meals Sold at Petrol Stations in Calabar Metropolis

G. E. Udosen, F. E. Uboh, Dennis Amaechi, M. O. Odey, J. E. Mgbang

Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health, Page 1-6

Aim: In this study, the concentrations of Cu, Fe and Ni, long term exposure and daily consumption of ready-to-eat food foods sold at Petrol station’s Atmospheric conditions (AF) in Calabar Metropolis was evaluated.

Methods: Foods samples, including such prepared ready-to-eat foods as garri, meat pie, stew, rice, beans, afang and melon soups were collected at the point of sale at the fuel stations, about 7:00 am in the morning before they were opened for sale (and exposed to the environment of the filling stations). These were labelled “Before”. At about 2:00 pm to 3:00 pm same day, the same ready-to-eat food samples were collected again at the same spots (after they have been exposed to the filling stations atmospheric environment). These were labelled “After”. The food samples were collected in such a way that all the Garri purchased before, across the different filling stations were mashed together as a single sample, while the ones purchased after were equally collected to form a single sample. The other food samples were handled in like manner.

Results: The levels of Cu, Fe and Ni recorded for garri, afang soup, melon soup, white rice, beans, stew and meat pie (ready-to-eat meals) . The results showed that the level of Ni was significantly high in garri, afang soup, melon soup, white rice, beans and stew, while the level of Fe was significantly (p<0.05) increased in garri, melon soup, white rice, beans, stew and meat pie after 6 hours of exposure to petrol station’s atmospheric conditions. It was also observed that the level of Cu was significantly high in garri and white rice after 6 hours of exposure to petrol station’s atmospheric conditions. This also gave an indication exposure of most ready-to-eat foods to the petrol stations atmospheric conditions for 6 hours, during sales, are likely to results in the contamination of the foods with Ni.

Conclusion: In this study, such ready-to-eat foods as garri, afang soup, melon soup, white rice, beans, stew and meat pie displayed for sale at the petrol refueling stations in Calabar were observed to be contaminated with Cu, Fe and level of Ni.

Open Access Original Research Article

Awareness and Utilization of Emergency Contraceptives: A Survey among Ghanaian Tertiary Students

Florence Assibi Ziba, Vida Nyagre Yakong

Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health, Page 1-7

Background: Unplanned pregnancy has become a public health concern globally. It has been linked to unsafe abortion and maternal mortality. According to the World Health Organization, developing countries bear nearly all the burden of the 22 million abortions and two thirds of the abortion related mortalities each year. Ghana is one of the developing countries with high prevalence of unplanned pregnancy and unsafe abortion. The Emergency contraceptive (EC) is the only female contraceptive method that offers women the opportunity to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex. However, little is known about its utilization among women in Ghana. This study investigated the knowledge and utilization of EC among tertiary students in the Bolgatanga Municipality of the Upper East Region of Ghana.

Methods: The method adopted was cross sectional study conducted in the Bolgatanga Municipality of the Upper East Region of Ghana from February to April, 2016. Participants were selected using simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered to 300 participants. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0.

Results: Majority (85.9%) of the participants were between the ages of 15-25 years, not married (82.8%) and Christians (75.0%). Among the participants, 72.4% were sexually active and 17.8% had ever been pregnant. Among those reporting ever being pregnant, 31(72.1%) of them stated that the pregnancies were unplanned. Over 80% of the participants had knowledge on EC. Those who were sexually active had more knowledge than those who were not (p=0.026). Teachers (51.6%) and friends (41.5%) were the main source of information for the students. Only 33.3% of those who have ever heard of EC ever used it with 83.8% of them using it more than once.

Conclusion: There was a high level of knowledge of EC among participants but important gaps were identified. The Sexual activity and religion were important factors in determining the use of EC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Work-life Balance of Female Nurses in Private Hospitals in Port-Harcourt Metropolis, South-South Nigeria

A. V. Asawalam, E.O. Asuquo, I. D. Alabere, I. H. Ogbuehi

Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health, Page 1-13

Background: There is growing concern that the quality of home and work life is deteriorating and this has resulted in poor employee input and performance at home and work. Female nurses as working women are faced with multiple roles; work and family/personal roles and majority of these women encounter stress while trying to balance their work and family life. The aim of this study was to assess work-life balance and associated factors among female nurses in private hospitals in Port-Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Methodology: A mixed method was used. For quantitative data a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to select 200 respondents using a multi-stage sampling technique. While qualitative data was collected through in-depth interviews from 12 respondents using the phenomenological approach to collect data. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbachs alpha for 23-item in check-list manual for work-life balance with an alpha of 0.686 (95% CI: 0.619 - 0.746).

Results: The mean age of respondents was 32.17 ± 5.83 years. Poor work-life balance was identified in 108 (54%) of the respondents. Socio-demographic characteristics were not significant with work-life balance. However, work related factors like work stress (0.001), work long hours (0.001), poor remuneration (0.001), unsatisfying job (0.001), and family/personal related factors like spending less time with family (0.001), always feeling tired after work (0.001) and lack of time to recreate and relax (0.003) were found to be significantly associated with work-life balance (p value <0.005). Coping strategies adopted to achieve work-life balance included personal support, family support and organizational support. Findings from the qualitative study showed that long working hours, work overload, work shift (night shift) and lack of time (family, leisure, etc.) are factors contributing to work-life imbalance among nurses.

Conclusion: Female nurses in private hospitals in Port-Harcourt Metropolis had a poor work-life balance predominantly due to stressful work and long working hours resulting in tiredness after work and inadequate time for family and recreation as well as poor remuneration. There is therefore the need for operators of private hospitals to adopt worker friendly working conditions by particularly employing more staff, paying better salaries, paid annual, maternal and sick leave for staff.