Assessment of the Awareness and Knowledge on Standard Precaution of Tuberculosis among Primary Healthcare Workers in Edo State, Nigeria

Oluwaseun R. Omole

Department of Community Health Nursing, West African College of Nursing and Midwifery, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Debra U. Okeh

Department of Community Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

Isaiah O. Abali

Department of Surgery, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.

Olufunmi A. I. Otuka

Department of Surgery, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.

Lisa I. Eweputanna

Department of Radiology, Abia State University Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria.

Patricia I. Ejikem

Department of Community Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Nigeria.

Ngozichukwu C. Ekeleme

Department of Community Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Nigeria.

Perpetua O. Nnemelu

Department of Microbiology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Irene U. Okeke

Department of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria.

Augustine I. Airaodion *

Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Aim: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and awareness of primary healthcare workers regarding tuberculosis (TB), its prevention and control measures, and standard precautions.

Methodology: This study employed a cross-sectional, descriptive research design to describe the level of knowledge on standard precautions for tuberculosis among primary health care workers. A total of four hundred and fifty (450) primary health care workers from selected Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Edo State, Nigeria were recruited for this study. Participants were selected using a stratified random sampling method, ensuring representation from different facilities, professions, and geographical locations. A self-administered, structured questionnaire was used for data collection.

Results: A total of 450 questionnaires were distributed, with 435 deemed valid and analyzed. The majority of respondents were female (79.08%), married (55.86%), and nurses (50.80%). The results showed that 69.66% of the respondents correctly identified bacteria as the causative agent of TB, and 95.40% acknowledged that TB is an airborne disease. Respondents also demonstrated knowledge of common symptoms (66.90%), high-risk groups, and types of TB (79.08%). However, only 61.15% recognized that the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is not 100% effective in preventing TB. All respondents identified standard precautions for healthcare workers when dealing with suspected or confirmed TB cases, such as hand hygiene, wearing personal protective equipment, isolating the patient, and disposing of contaminated waste safely. The majority (73.33%) correctly identified the N95 respirator as the recommended mask for healthcare workers treating TB patients. Furthermore, 91.49% mentioned the necessary actions when a TB patient is identified. However, 60.69% of respondents reported that their workplaces' current TB prevention and control programs were not effective, and 91.72% had not received any formal training or education on TB and standard precautions in the past two years.

Conclusion: This study reveals that healthcare professionals possess a baseline understanding of TB and the necessary standard precautions. However, there are notable gaps in knowledge and misconceptions that could impact the effective management and control of TB in healthcare settings.

Keywords: Awareness and knowledge, primary healthcare workers, standard precautions, tuberculosis

How to Cite

Omole, Oluwaseun R., Debra U. Okeh, Isaiah O. Abali, Olufunmi A. I. Otuka, Lisa I. Eweputanna, Patricia I. Ejikem, Ngozichukwu C. Ekeleme, Perpetua O. Nnemelu, Irene U. Okeke, and Augustine I. Airaodion. 2023. “Assessment of the Awareness and Knowledge on Standard Precaution of Tuberculosis Among Primary Healthcare Workers in Edo State, Nigeria”. Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health 6 (1):160-72.


Download data is not yet available.


Jo KW, Woo JH, Hong Y, Choi CM, Oh YM, Lee SD. Incidence of tuberculosis among health care workers at a private university hospital in South Korea. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2018;12: 436–40.

World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Report 2021. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2021.


Bin C, Gu H, Wang X, Wang F, Peng Y, Ge E. Prevalence and determinants of latent tuberculosis infection among frontline tuberculosis healthcare workers in southeastern China: A multilevel analysis by individuals and health facilities. J Glob Infect Dis. 2019;79: 26–33. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.010

Williams M, Ndlebe L, ten Ham-Baloyi W, Venter D. Employees’ knowledge and practices on occupational exposure to tuberculosis at specialised tuberculosis hospitals in South Africa. Curationis. 2020; 43:1–8. DOI: 10.4102/curationis.v43i1.2039

Joshi R, Reingold AL, Menzies D, Pai M. Tuberculosis among health-care workers in low-and middle-income countries: A systematic review. Plos Med. 2016; 3:e494. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030494

Sissolak D, Marais F, Mehtar S. TB infection prevention and control experiences of South African nurses-a phenomenological study. BMC Public Health. 2021;11:1–10. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-262

Delft VA, Dramowski A, Khosa C, Kotze K, Lederer P. Why healthcare workers are sick of TB. Int J Infect Dis. 2015; 32:147–51. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2014.12.003

Adhikari N, Bhattarai R, Basnet R, Joshi LR. Tuberculosis infection control measures at health facilities providing tuberculosis services in Nepal. SAARC Journal of Tuberculosis, Lung Diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2018;16:16–20. DOI: 10.3126/saarctb.v16i2.23338

Adhikari N, Joshi LR, Subedi B, Acharya D, Adhikari M. Tuberculosis in Nepal: situation, challenges and ways forward. SAARC Journal of Tuberculosis, Lung Diseases and HIV/AIDS. 2019; 17: 34–40. DOI: 10.3126/saarctb.v17i1.25026

O’Donnell MR, Jarand J, Loveday M, Padayatchi N, Zelnick J. High incidence of hospital admissions with multidrug resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis among South African health care workers. Ann Intern Med. 2020;153: 516–22. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-153-8-201010 190-00008

Baral MA, Koirala S. Knowledge and practice on prevention and control of tuberculosis among nurses working in a regional hospital, Nepal. Frontiers in Medicine. 2022;8:1-8. DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2021.788833

Buregyeya E, Kasasa S, Mitchell EM. Tuberculosis infection control knowledge and attitudes among health workers in Uganda: A cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:1–10. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-016-1740-7

Gizaw GD, Alemu ZA, Kibret KT. Assessment of knowledge and practice of health workers towards tuberculosis infection control and associated factors in public health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Archives of Public Health. 2015;73:1–9. DOI: 10.1186/s13690-015-0062-3

Hng SH. Knowledge and practice among nurses on management of tuberculosis in a teaching hospital. Med Health. 2018; 153–64. DOI: 10.17576/MH.2018.1301.15

Temesgen C, Demissie M. Knowledge and practice of tuberculosis infection control among health professionals in Northwest Ethiopia; 2021. BMC Health Services Res. 2014;14:1–7. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-014-0593-2

Ekuma AE, Oridota ES. Knowledge, attitude and tuberculosis infection control practice among healthcare workers in DOTS centres in Lagos, Nigeria. Int J Infect Control. 2016;12:16275. DOI: 10.3396/ijic.v12i4.16275

Okeowo, G, Fatoba, I. State of States 2022 Edition. Budg IT. 2022.

Koutonin M. "Story of cities #5: Benin City, the mighty medieval capital now lost without trace". the Guardian. 2016. Retrieved 2023-04-16.

Obinyan, T. U. "The Annexation of Benin". Journal of Black Studies. Sage. 1988;19(1):29-40. DOI:10.1177/002193478801900103. JSTOR 2784423. S2CID 142726955

Lemeshow S, Hosmer DW, Klar J, Lwanga SK, World Health Organization. Adequacy of sample size in health studies. John wiley & sons, Chichester; 2019.

Bhebhe, L., Van Rooyen, C., Steinberg, W. Attitudes, knowledge and practices of healthcare workers regarding occupational exposure of pulmonary tuberculosis. African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine, 2014. Available:

Aboh AP. Knowledge and practices regarding tuberculosis infection control among nurses in Ibadan, south-west Nigeria: a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Services Res. 2020;20:1–10. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-020-05156-y

Narhari T, Ansari MA, Dayal V. Risk of infection among primary health workers in the Western Development Region, Nepal: knowledge and compliance. J Infec Dev Ctries. 2011;5:018–22. DOI: 10.3855/jidc.782

Shrestha A, Bhattarai D, Thapa B, Basel P, Wagle RR. Health care workers’ knowledge, attitudes and practices on tuberculosis infection control, Nepal. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:1–7. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2828-4.

Wang XN, He TL, Geng MJ, Song YD, Wang JC, Liu M. Prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis among healthcare workers in Chinese tuberculosis facilities. Infect Dis Poverty. 2018;7:1–11. DOI: 10.1186/s40249-018-0407-6