Review of Work-Related Stress and the Incidence of Hypertension among Nurses

Full Article PDF Review History

Published: 2023-09-16

Page: 343-351


Seif S. Khalfan *

Faculty of Health and Allied Sciences, Zanzibar University, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Sultan Kh. Muki

Faculty of Health and Allied Sciences, Zanzibar University, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Jeremie Minani

Faculty of Health and Allied Sciences, Zanzibar University, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Khalfan A. Khamis

Faculty of Health and Allied Sciences, Zanzibar University, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Fatma A. Said

Ministry of Health Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Biubwa Suleiman

Mnazi Mmoja Rereferral Hospital Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Huba Khamis Rashid

School of Medicine and Health Sciences, State University of Zanzibar, Tanzania.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Work-related stress is a prevalent concern across various professions. Demands often exceed coping capacities, leading to physical and mental strain. This stress frequently results from overwhelming workloads, unrealistic deadlines, and a lack of control. The constant connectivity of modern technology blurs the boundaries between work and personal life, causing chronic stress for those who are always available. Inadequate job security, fear of unemployment, and a lack of autonomy contribute to this stress. Stress impacts individuals' well-being and strains organizations through decreased productivity and higher turnover. To address this issue, organizations can prioritize employee well-being by promoting work-life balance and communication. Offering flexible work arrangements and promoting mindfulness can aid in reducing stress. Health check-ups and effective support systems assist individuals.

Nurses, who comprise a significant portion of the healthcare workforce, face unique stressors. However, research on stress across different nursing roles is limited. Work stress significantly impacts nurses' cardiovascular health, with hypertension being a notable concern. Factors contributing to nurses' hypertension include demanding work hours, heavy patient loads, and emotional strain. Nurses' unique challenges necessitate targeted interventions, including stress reduction initiatives and flexible schedules. Sedentary lifestyles among nurses are aggravated by irregular eating habits and limited exercise opportunities, increasing the risk of hypertension. Organizations can encourage healthier habits by providing nutritious options and exercise opportunities. The implications of hypertension extend to nurses' productivity, job satisfaction, and overall health. Work-related stress and hypertension collectively jeopardize nurse well-being and strain healthcare systems. Effective management requires both individual and organizational efforts. Nurses should prioritize self-care through balanced nutrition, exercise, and stress management. Healthcare organizations should ensure manageable workloads, create a supportive environment, offer wellness programs, and establish communication channels. Regular health check-ups and training for managers can aid early detection and support.

In conclusion, hypertension among nurses due to work-related stress is a pressing issue. Recognizing the unique stressors of nursing, both nurses and organizations can adopt strategies  to manage stress and reduce the risk of hypertension. Prioritizing nurses' health ensures quality patient care and sustains the integrity of the healthcare system. Effective management necessitates comprehensive approaches, combining individual self-care and organizational support.

Keywords: Work-related stress, job demands, coping capacity, workplace boundaries, stress management, support systems, job satisfaction, patient care


How to Cite

Khalfan, S. S., Muki, S. K., Minani, J., Khamis, K. A., Said, F. A., Suleiman, B., & Rashid, H. K. (2023). Review of Work-Related Stress and the Incidence of Hypertension among Nurses. Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health, 6(1), 343–351. Retrieved from https://journalajrnh.com/index.php/AJRNH/article/view/135

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ornek OK, Esin MN. Effects of a work-related stress model based mental health promotion program on job stress, stress reactions and coping profiles of women workers: a control groups study. BMC public health. 2020 Dec;20(1):1658.

Michie S. Causes and management of stress at work. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002;59(1):67.

Tennakoon US. Crossing the work/life boundary with ICT: Moderating effect of ICT perception on the relationship between cross-domain ICT use and work/life conflict. South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management. 2018;5(2): 194-215.

Jung HS, Jung YS, Yoon HH. COVID-19: The effects of job insecurity on the job engagement and turnover intent of deluxe hotel employees and the moderating role of generational characteristics. International Journal of Hospitality Management. 2021;92:102703.

Obrenovic B, et al. The threat of COVID-19 and job insecurity impact on depression and anxiety: an empirical study in the USA. Frontiers in Psychology. 2021;12.

Clausen T, et al. Job autonomy and psychological well-being: A linear or a non-linear association? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 2022;31(3):395-405.

Marconcin P, et al. The association between physical activity and mental health during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2022;22(1):209.

Bui T, et al. Workplace stress and productivity: a cross-sectional study. Kans J Med. 2021;14:42-45.

Gautam P. Work-culture for employee work-behaviour: mediating role of satisfaction. PYC Nepal Journal of Management. 2020;13:17-32.

Aczel B, et al. Researchers working from home: Benefits and challenges. PloS one. 2021 Mar 25;16(3):e0249127..

Dinesh TK, et al. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions on well-being and work-related stress in the financial sector: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Systematic Reviews. 2022 Apr 27;11(1):79.

Ganapathi N. Workplace stress: The need for communication and knowledge sharing. Internat J Exclusive Manage Res; 2012.

Godsey JA, Houghton DM, Hayes T. Registered nurse perceptions of factors contributing to the inconsistent brand image of the nursing profession. Nurs Outlook. 2020;68(6):808-821.

Mathieu B, et al. The global health workforce stock and distribution in 2020 and 2030: a threat to equity and ‘universal’ health coverage? BMJ Global Health. 2022;7(6):e009316.

Tamata AT, Mohammadnezhad M, Tamani L. Registered nurses’ perceptions on the factors affecting nursing shortage in the Republic of Vanuatu Hospitals: A qualitative study. Plos one. 2021 May 20;16(5):e0251890.

Muhamad Robat R, et al. Why so stressed? A comparative study on stressors and stress between hospital and non-hospital nurses. BMC Nursing. 2021;20(1):2.

Eslami Akbar R, et al. How do the nurses cope with job stress? A study with grounded theory approach. J Caring Sci. 2017;6(3):199-211.

Carvello M, et al. Peer-support: a coping strategy for nurses working at the Emergency Ambulance Service. Acta Biomed. 2019;90(11-s):29-37.

Harrad R, Sulla F. Factors associated with and impact of burnout in nursing and residential home care workers for the elderly. Acta Biomed. 2018;89(7-s): 60-69.

Babapour AR, Gahassab-Mozaffari N, Fathnezhad-Kazemi A. Nurses’ job stress and its impact on quality of life and caring behaviors: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nursing. 2022;21(1):75.

Chang PY, et al. Stressors and level of stress among different nursing positions and the associations with hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension: a national questionnaire survey. BMC Nurs. 2021;20(1):250.

Søvold LE, et al. Prioritizing the mental health and well-being of healthcare workers: an urgent global public health priority. Frontiers in Public Health; 2021:9.

Sharma P, et al. Occupational stress among staff nurses: Controlling the risk to health. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2014;18(2):52-6.

Kjeldsen SE. Hypertension and cardiovascular risk: General aspects. Pharmacol Res. 2018;129:95-99.

Monakali S, et al. Prevalence, awareness, control and determinants of hypertension among primary health care professional nurses in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2018;10(1):e1-e5.

Gerhardt C, et al. How are social stressors at work related to well-being and health? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):890.

Mudallal RH, Othman WM, Al Hassan NF. Nurses' burnout: the influence of leader empowering behaviors, work conditions, and demographic traits. Inquiry. 2017;54:46958017724944.

Carey RM, et al. Prevention and control of hypertension: JACC health promotion series. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(11): 1278-1293.

Kwame A, Petrucka PM. A literature-based study of patient-centered care and communication in nurse-patient interactions: barriers, facilitators, and the way forward. BMC Nursing. 2021; 20(1):158.

Oldland E, et al. A framework of nurses’ responsibilities for quality healthcare — Exploration of content validity. Collegian. 2020;27(2):150-163.

ST, GSN. Work-life balance -a systematic review. Vilakshan - XIMB Journal of Management; 2021. ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print).

Liu MY, et al. Association between psychosocial stress and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurol Res. 2017;39(6):573-580.

Costa G. Shift work and health: Current problems and preventive actions. Saf Health Work. 2010; 1(2):112-23.

Oparil S, et al. Hypertension. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018;4:18014.

Mills KT, Stefanescu A, He J. The global epidemiology of hypertension. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020; 16(4):223-237.

Liu YZ, Wang YX, Jiang CL. Inflammation: The common pathway of stress-related diseases. Front Hum Neurosci. 2017; 11:316.

Stimpfel AW, Sloane DM, Aiken LH. The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction. Health Affairs. 2012;31(11): 2501-2509.

Lukan J, et al. Work environment risk factors causing day-to-day stress in occupational settings: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2022;22(1):240.

Glowacka M. A little less autonomy? The future of working time flexibility and its limits. European Labour Law Journal. 2020;12(2):113-133.

Wang J, et al. Change in eating habits and physical activities before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study via random telephone survey. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2021;18(1):33.

Gifkins J, Johnston A, Loudoun R. The impact of shift work on eating patterns and self-care strategies utilised by experienced and inexperienced nurses. Chronobiol Int. 2018;35(6):811-820.

Sartorius K, et al. Does high-carbohydrate intake lead to increased risk of obesity? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2018;8(2):e018449.

Pot GK, Almoosawi S, Stephen AM. Meal irregularity and cardiometabolic consequences: results from observational and intervention studies. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2016;75(4):475-486.

Waters TR, Dick RB. Evidence of health risks associated with prolonged standing at work and intervention effectiveness. Rehabil Nurs. 2015;40(3):148-65.

Dunstan DW, et al. Sit less and move more for cardiovascular health: emerging insights and opportunities. Nature Reviews Cardiology. 2021;18(9):637-648.

Panahi S, Tremblay A. Sedentariness and health: Is sedentary behavior more than just physical inactivity?. Front Public Health. 2018;6:258.

Schneider S, et al. Contextual influences on physical activity and eating habits -options for action on the community level. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(1):760.

Alkhulaifi F, Darkoh C. Meal Timing, Meal Frequency and Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients. 2022; 14(9).

Nystoriak MA, Bhatnagar A. Cardiovascular effects and benefits of exercise. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018;5:135.

Montgomery A, et al. Job demands, burnout, and engagement among nurses: A multi-level analysis of ORCAB data investigating the moderating effect of teamwork. Burn Res. 2015;2(2-3):71-79.

Stern D, et al. Facilitators and barriers to healthy eating in a worksite cafeteria: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):973.

Mak TCT, Chan DKC, Capio CM. Strategies for Teachers to Promote Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Settings-A Scoping Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(3).

Ahmadi S, et al. Lifestyle modification strategies for controlling hypertension: How are these strategies recommended by physicians in Iran?. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2019;33:43.

Higgins JNP, Pickard JD, Lever AML. Chronic fatigue syndrome and idiopathic intracranial hypertension: Different manifestations of the same disorder of intracranial pressure?. Med Hypotheses. 2017;105:6-9.

Gallagher R, et al. The health of working nurses: Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control by medication. J Nurs Manag. 2018;26(4): 403-410.

Linton M, Koonmen J. Self-care as an ethical obligation for nurses. Nursing Ethics. 2020;27(8): 1694-1702.

Alex J, et al. Nurses as key advocates of self-care approaches to chronic disease management. Contemporary Nurse. 2020;56(2):101-104.

Liss DT, et al. General health checks in adult primary care: A review. Jama. 2021;325(22):2294-2306.

Turale S, Kunaviktikul W. The contribution of nurses to health policy and advocacy requires leaders to provide training and mentorship. International Nursing Review. 2019;66(3):302-304.

Burgess A, et al. Feedback in the clinical setting. BMC Medical Education. 2020; 20(2):460.