Integration Strategy to Control and Prevent Diarrheal Disease among Children in the Community: A Systematic Review

Ma. Theresa Salinda *

Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines.

Aldrin N. San Juan

Emilio Aguinaldo College, Manila, Philippines.

Cyrelle D. Agunod

Northern College of Nursing, Arar, Saudi Arabia.

Adelina M. Santos

Northern College of Nursing, Arar, Saudi Arabia.

Jacqueline Joy S. Paez

Manila Central University, Caloocan, Philippines.

Myracle Isip-de Torres

Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines.

Jerry A. Abriam

Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines.

Orlane Marybhell D. Dimaunahan

Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines.

Daryl Jake S. Fornolles

Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines.

Cliff Richard T. Mabasa

National University, Manila, Philippines.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Background: Diarrheal disease is a childhood disease serve as global health threat to the population of young children. Based on World Health Organization [1], it was listed as fourth highest recorded cases which as estimation of 1 out of 9 child deaths worldwide. It has a mortality rate of “525,000” every year (WHO, 2017. These mortality statistical data are associated with 88% of child deaths. One of the leading viruses that manifests diarrhea is the rotavirus which in return accounts for 40% of hospitalization of cases.

Purpose: The study aims to enlighten people about various preventive measures to manage diarrheal diseases. Diarrhea is a significant global health threat that particularly affects children. The goal of this study is therefore to summarize scientific evidence on the different prevention and control of diarrheal diseases.

Methods: This systematic review aims to examine the effectiveness of preventive measures and the process of control strategies for diarrheal disease through synthesizing epidemiological and clinical investigations that include cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, and qualitative research. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of various interventions, such as oral hydration and zinc therapy, handwashing facilities, sanitation, hand hygiene, wash, water filters, and other relevant methods.

Results: On the twenty (20) related literature in this review, a total of “50,765” samples, 19837 records, 15 studies, and 10 articles consisting of 2841 who considered oral rehydration solutions and zinc, 826 samples considered handwash, 46423 samples considered Sanitation, hygiene and Water, and the rest considered Water filters in Prevention and Control of Diarrheal Diseases. Reported methods or procedures included oral hydration and zinc therapy, handwashing facility (EHF), sanitation, hand hygiene, wash, water filters.

Conclusion: The systematic and integrative review conducted on diarrheal diseases has provided valuable insights into the risk factors and various prevention and control measures associated with this widespread health issue. The analysis has identified several aggravating factors that contribute to the increasing incidence of diarrheal diseases, including rainwater, age, type of drinking water, distance from water purification plants, and toilet facility type. These factors highlight the need for targeted interventions to address specific vulnerabilities and improve overall public health.

Keywords: Children, community, control, diarrheal disease, prevention, systematic review


How to Cite

Salinda, Ma. Theresa, Aldrin N. San Juan, Cyrelle D. Agunod, Adelina M. Santos, Jacqueline Joy S. Paez, Myracle Isip-de Torres, Jerry A. Abriam, Orlane Marybhell D. Dimaunahan, Daryl Jake S. Fornolles, and Cliff Richard T. Mabasa. 2023. “Integration Strategy to Control and Prevent Diarrheal Disease Among Children in the Community: A Systematic Review”. Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health 6 (1):361-79. https://journalajrnh.com/index.php/AJRNH/article/view/137.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

World Health Organization. Child Mortality (under 5 years); 2022. Available:https://www.who.int/news-room/fact- sheets/detail/levels-and-trends-in-child-under-5-mortality-in 2020#:~:text=Globally%2C%20infectious%20diseases%2C%20including%20pneumonia,for%20children%20under%205%20years.

World Health Organization. Diarrhoeal disease. (2017). Available:https://www.who.int/news-room/fact- sheets/detail/diarrhoeal-disease

United Nations. Sustainable Development Goals Report; 2022. Available:https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2022/Goal-06/

World Health Organization. SDG 3.9.2: Mortality rate attributable to unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene; WASH deaths; 2022. Available:https://www.who.int/data/gho/data/indicators/indicator-details/GHO/sdg-3-9-2-wash- deaths

UCSF Health (n.d.). Diarrhea: Signs and Symptoms. Available:https://www.ucsfhealth.org/conditions/diarrhea/symptoms#:~:text=Diarrhea%20that%20persists%20for% 20more,the%20care%20of%20your%20doctor.

Khaliq A, Amreen Jameel N et al. Knowledge and practices on the prevention and management of diarrhea in children under-2 years among women dwelling in urban slums of Karachi, Pakistan. Matern Child Health J. 2022;26:1442–1452 Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-022-03391-9

Wani H, Smeets P, Shrivastava S. Evaluation of WASH indicators associated with diarrhoeal disease among under-five children in an urban slum pocket, Mumbai city, India: a community-based repeated cross-sectional study. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 2022;12(4):359–374. Available:https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2022.196

Agegnehu MD, Zeleke LB, Goshu YA, Ortibo YL, Adinew YM. Diarrhea prevention practice and associated factors among caregivers of under-five children in Enemay District, Northwest Ethiopia. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. Article ID 5490716. 2019;2019:8. Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5490716.

Putri WB, Akhmad SA, Desrini S. The role of zinc supplementation for diarrhoea in children: A critical review. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science. 2019;18(2): 190–195. Available:https://doi.org/10.3329/bjms.v18i2.40684

Firima E, Forsberg B. Knowledge and recommendation of oral rehydration solution and zinc for management of childhood diarrhoea among patent and proprietary medicine vendors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Journal of Global Health Reports. 2020;4:e2020013.

DOI:10.29392/001c.12252

Yani E, Hermon D, Barlian E, Dewata I, Umar I. Directions for Sanitation-Based Environmental Structuring using AHP for the Prevention of Diarrhea in PagarAlam City - Indonesia. International Journal of Management and Humanities (IJMH). 2020;4(9). DOI: 10.35940/ijmh.I0848.054920.

Lubis I, Indirawati SM, Marsaulina I. The coralation between sanitation facilities and personal hygiene with the cases of diarrhea in breastfeeding toddlers in sinabung post-eruption settlements, Berastagi District, Karo Regency. Randwick International of Social Sciences(RISS) Journal. 2021;2(3): 241-249.

DOI:https://doi.org/10.47175/rissj.v2i3.271

Shah BB, Inam KU, Shakoor S. Role of oral zinc supplementation in treatment of acute dehydrating diarrhea in children aged 6 months to 5 years. Postgraduate Journal of Medical Humanities. 2021; 15(11).

DOI:https://doi.org/10.53350/pjmhs211511300

Hossain S, Islam M, Khokon AS, Islam M. On Prevention of Diarrheal Disease: Assessing the Factors of Effective Handwashing Facilities in Bangladesh. Journal of Population and Social Studies (JPSS). 2021;30:103- 115. Available:http://doi.org/10.25133/JPSSv302022.007

Tintle N, Van De Griend K, Ulrich R et al. Diarrhea prevalence in a randomized, controlled prospective trial of point-of-use water filters in homes and schools in the Dominican Republic. Trop Med Health. 2021;49(1).

Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00291-y

Kumari L, Sourabh K, Laishram G, Jumade P, Wagh V. Hygiene practices and its association with diarrhea: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Science University. 2021;16 (3):454-456.

DOI: 10.4103/jdmimsu.jdmimsu_219_20.

Solomon ET, Gari SR, Kloos H et al. Handwashing effect on diarrheal incidence in children under 5 years old in rural eastern Ethiopia: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Trop Med Health. 2021;49:26.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-021-00315-1

George CM, Monira S, Zohura F, Thomas ED, Hasan MT, Parvin T, Hasan K et al. Effects of a Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Mobile Health Program on Diarrhea and Child Growth in Bangladesh: A Cluster-randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera Hospital-based Intervention for 7 Days (CHoBI7) Mobile Health Program. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2021;73(9):e2560–e2568. Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa754.

Iwashita H, Asako T, Thiem VD, Takemura T, Nguyen TH, Doan HT, Pham AHQ, Tran NL, Yamashiro T. Risk Factors Associated with Diarrheal Episodes in an Agricultural Community in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam: A Prospective Cohort Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(4):2456 Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19042456

Komba FE, Fabian C, Elimbinzi E et al. Efficiency of common filters for water treatment in Tanzania. Bull Natl Res Cent. 2022;46:208. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s42269-022-00888-9

Opeyemi OZ. Differential utilisation of two therapeutic methods in the management of diarrhoea among under-five children attending primary health care centres in Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Health, Nursing and Midwifery. 2022;5(4):124-138. Available:https://doi.org/10.52589/AJHNM- OO8SWQE8

Wolf J, Hubbard S, Brauer M, Ambelu A, Arnold Bf, Bain R, Bauza V, Brown J, Caruso BA, Clasen T, Colford JM, Freeman MC, Gordon B, Johnston RB, Merten A, Pruss-Ustun A, Ross I, Stanaway J, Zhao JT, Cumming O, Boisson S. Effectiveness of interventions to improve drinking water, sanitation, and handwashing with soap on risk of diarrhoeal disease in children in low- income and middle-income settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet. 2022;400(10345):48-59. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00937-0

Solomon ET, Robele S, Kloos H et al. Effect of household water treatment with chlorine on diarrhea among children under the age of five years in rural areas of Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia: A cluster randomized controlled trial. Infect Dis Poverty. 2020;9:64. Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00680-9

Bauza V, Ye W, Liao J, Majorin F, Clasen T. Interventions to improve sanitation for preventing diarrhoea. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2023;1. Art. No.: CD013328.

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013328.pub2.

Brahmanandam N, Bharambe MS. Transition in availability of improved sanitation facilities and its effect on diarrhoeal disease in India: evidence from longitudinal data. International Health. 2023; ihac082.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihac082

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Diarrhea: Common Illness, Global Killer.

Available:https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/pdf/global/programs/globaldiarrhea508c.pdf

Cangemi JR. Food poisoning and diarrhea: small intestine effects. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2011;13(5):442- 8.

DOI: 10.1007/s11894-011-0209-5. PMID: 21773707.

Clasen TF, Brown J, Collin SM. Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia. Int J Environ Health Res. 2006;16(3):231-9.

DOI: 10.1080/09603120600641474. PMID: 16611567.

Edward A, Jung Y, Chhorvann C, Ghee AE, Chege J. Association of mother’s handwashing practices and pediatric diarrhea: evidence from a multi-country study on community oriented intervention. J Prev Med Hyg; 2019.

DOI: 10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2019.60.2.1088.

Mayo Clinic (n.d.). Diarrhea.

Available:https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diarrhea/symptoms-causes/syc- 20352241#Overview

Mokomane M, Kasvosve I, De Melo E, Pernica JM, Goldfarb DM. The global problem of childhood diarrhoeal diseases: emerging strategies in prevention and management. Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease. 2018;5(1):29-43. Available:https://doi.org/10.1177/2049936117744429

Nigatu D, Azage M, Motbainor A. Effect of exclusive breastfeeding cessation time on childhood morbidity and adverse nutritional outcomes in Ethiopia: Analysis of the demographic and health surveys; 2019.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223379

Powell H, Liang Y, Neuzil KM, Jamka LP, Nasrin D, Sow SO, Hossain MJ, Omore R, Kotloff KL. A Description of the Statistical Methods for the Vaccine Impact on Diarrhea in Africa (VIDA) Study. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2023;76(1):S5–S11. Available:https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciac968

Rusyada F, Ronoatmodjo S. The relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and diarrhea in under six months Infants in 2017 (Analysis of Indonesian Health Demography Data Survey 2017). Jurnal Epidemiologi Kesehatan Komunitas. 2021;6(2):333 -340. Available:https://ejournal2.undip.ac.id/index.php/jekk/article/view/11815/6260

Taylor CE, Greenough WB. Control of Diarrheal Diseases. Annual Review of Public Health. 1989;10:221-244.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.10.050189.001253.

Ugboko HU, Nwinyi OC, Oranusi SU, Oyewale JO. Childhood diarrheal diseases in developing countries. Heliyon CellPress. 2020; 6(4),. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03690.

UNICEF (n.d.). Oral rehydration salts and zinc: Co-packaging offers simple solution to save children from diarrhoea. Available:https://www.unicef.org/supply/stories/oral-rehydration-salts-and-zinc-co-packaging-offers- simple-solution-save-children diarrhoea#:~:text=Approximately%2070%20to%2090%20per,that%20becomes%20drained%20during% 20diarrhoea.