Characteristics of Diabetes Type II Foot Complications at Kisii Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kenya

Kiprono C. Lorna

Maseno University, Kenya.

Agatha C. Onyango

Department of Nutrition and Health, Maseno University, Kenya.

Louisa Ndunyu

Maseno University, Kenya.

Kemei K. William *

Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Diabetes is a global non-communicable disease with a prevalence of 3.3% in Kenya and 11% in Kisii County. It is estimated that somewhere in the world, every 30 seconds a person suffering from advanced diabetes loses a limb to amputation due to foot complications, which in turn have negative impact on patients’ lives and puts them at risk of losing their independence, with social, psychological, and economic effects. The study aimed to determining the prevalence of foot complications, foot care knowledge, and self-care practices among patients with Type 2 Diabetes. The study involved 175 patients seeking care at the outpatient clinic at Kisii Teaching and Referral Hospital. Fisher exact test and chi-square test were used to evaluate association and assess the strength of interaction between variables. The most prevalent foot complication was corns, with male gender being associated with 85.7%. The study found that participants had poor foot care knowledge, average self-care practices, and did not know the signs of diabetic foot at risk. The study also found a significant association between foot care knowledge and diabetes duration and education background. Addressing this knowledge gap could involve incorporating health education on diabetes complications into community programs. Regular assessments from healthcare workers are recommended to identify foot at risk and prevent serious complications.

Keywords: Non-communicable disease, type II foot complications, diabetes management, ulcers

How to Cite

Lorna , K. C., Onyango , A. C., Ndunyu , L., & William , K. K. (2023). Characteristics of Diabetes Type II Foot Complications at Kisii Teaching and Referral Hospital, Kenya. Asian Journal of Research in Nursing and Health, 6(1), 380–388. Retrieved from


Katsarou AG. Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nature reviews Disease primers. 2017;3(1):1-17.

Isezuo SA. Demographic and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Native African type-2 diabetic patients. Journal of the National Medical Associatio., 2005;97(4):557.

Soewondo PF. Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: a literature review. Globalization and health. 2013;9(1):1-17.

Mugambi-Nturibi EO. Stratification of persons with diabetes into risk categories for foot ulceration. East African medical journal. 2009;86(5).

Mohamed SF. Prevalence and factors associated with pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus in Kenya: results from a national survey. BMC public health. 2018;18(3): 1-11.

Meme NA. Prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes among hypertensive patients attending Kiambu district Hospital, Kenya: a cross-sectional study. Pan African Medical Journal. 2015;22(1).

Boulton AJ. The diabetic foot: a global view. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. 2000;16(S1):S2-S5.

Mbisi AM. Influence of Foot-Care on Foot Ulcer Development Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Clinics in Embu County, Kenya; 2019.

Negash WA. Prevalences of diabetic foot ulcer and foot self-care practice, and associated factors in adult patients with diabetes in south-east Ethiopia. Journal of International Medical Research. 2022; 50(10).

Ugwu EA. Burden of diabetic foot ulcer in Nigeria: current evidence from the multicenter evaluation of diabetic foot ulcer in Nigeria. World journal of Diabetes. 2019;10(3):200.

Stancu BI. Diabetic foot complications: a retrospective cohort study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022;20(1):187.

Rastogi AG. Long term outcomes after incident diabetic foot ulcer: Multicenter large cohort prospective study (EDI-FOCUS investigators) epidemiology of diabetic foot complications study: Epidemiology of diabetic foot complications study. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2020;162:108113.

Salameh BS. Case-control study of risk factors and self-care behaviors of foot ulceration in diabetic patients attending primary healthcare services in palestine. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2020

Nongmaithem MB. A study of risk factors and foot care behavior among diabetics. Journal of family medicine and primary care. 2016;5(2):399.

Rodríguez-Sanz D. T.-C.-L.-L.-M.-F.-L. Foot disorders in the elderly: A mini-review. Disease-a-Month. 2018;64(3): 64-91.

Sami WA. Effect of diet on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review. International Journal of Health Sciences. 2017;11(2):65.

Goodall RJ. A systematic review of the impact of foot care education on self efficacy and self care in patients with diabetes. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 2020;60(2): 282-292.

Pavithra HA. Factors associated with awareness and practice about foot care among patients admitted with diabetes mellitus: A cross sectional research from a medical college hospital of southern India. Nepal Journal of Epidemiology. 2020; 10(3):897.

Tuha AG. Knowledge and practice on diabetic foot self-care and associated factors among diabetic patients at Dessie referral hospital, northeast Ethiopia: Mixed method. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity. 2021;1203- 1214.

Magbanua E-A. Knowledge and practice of diabetic foot care in patients with diabetes at Chinese general hospital and medical center. Journal of the ASEAN Federation of Endocrine Societies. 2017;32(2):123.